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魔术历史大事年表

发布日期:2010-05-06

        公元前2700年 古埃及的魔术师Dedi表演了杯和球的魔术效果,号称史上第一个魔术表演。Dedi曾表现过其它魔术效果,诸如砍去小鸟的头并重新移植上鸟头让其复活。(有争议说,并没有任何关于Dedi的记载表明他为任何人表演过杯和球,尤其是古埃及的Westcar Papyrus并无记录。著名的一幅出自墓葬品的绘画记载过两人表演杯和球,并且大多数专家都相信Beni Hasan才是用面包霉做出面包的面包师。)(注意:因为没有迹象表明Dedil表演过杯和球,此外Beni Hasan的记载文献也已不再描绘杯和球的效果,所以没有证据可以证明杯和球的表演确实存在于这段时期。)

        Westcar Papyrus 是古埃及的文字片段,其中包含有五个故事,内容是由神父与术士创造的奇迹。


        公元50-300年 在古罗马Acetabularii用石头和小醋杯表演了杯和球(从此命名为Acetabularii)。Acetabularii特指一群专供杯和球效果的魔术师。


        400-1000年 黑暗时代;这段时期的魔术历史很少,但是这段时期大多和超自然力有联系。同时魔术还没有成为一种娱乐活动。

        1000-1500年 中世纪,大多魔术仍然被认为和超自然力和巫术有关。社会逐渐增长的贸易性允许一些街头和马戏团表演者利用表演杯和球这样经典的效果来谋生,甚至允许他们表演一些比较新颖的效果,诸如硬币和其它小物体的trick效果。

        1584年 Reginald Scot出版《The Discoverie of Witchcraft(sic)》,该书某种程度上计划来反抗受迫害者的活动,但同时揭露了很多当时魔术的秘密。魔术仍然和巫术联系在一起,但在17世纪早期许多Scot的书被烧毁了。


        1720年 英国魔术师Isaac Fawlkes退休。他在诸多展销会上的表演为他赚到了一笔将近一万英镑的财富。他的trick包括找到任何一张牌并让其出现在天花板上,以及他的鸡蛋背包。他在Bartholomew展销会的摊位被标为“Dexterity of Hand”。他也表演一些幻术和柔术。

         1750年 18世纪魔术的主要人物Pinetti, Chevalier Guiseppe出生。“Pinetti据说是第一位有记载表演过the thumb tie effect的魔术师”,同时他也表演过超视力、exhibited automata和橘子树幻术。

        1805年 Jean Eugene Robert-Houdin出生(1871年去世),他被尊称为“现代魔术之父”,把魔术秀从街头和马戏团带上了优美的舞台和客厅。

         1874年 牌王和手铐王Harry Houdini出生(1926年去世)。他的真名是Ehrich Weiss,并以逃身术闻名。


         1876年 第一本现代魔术著作出版,作者是Louis Hoffman教授(1839-1919)(真名是Angelo John Lewis)。这是一部当时魔术技术发展水平的权威性作品。


        1894年 Dai Vernon出生(1992年去世),他被称为“教授”和“能骗到Houdini的人”。他出生在渥太华,原名叫David Frederick Wingfield Verner。20世纪最有影响力的魔术师。

        1902年 S. W. Erdnase写的《牌桌专家The Expert At The Card Table》一书由The Charles T. Powner Co.出版,牌玩家认为该书是最重要的书籍之一。
         1902年 5月10日,美国魔术师协会在纽约市的Martinka's魔术店成立。它是世界上最古老的魔术协会。

        1905年 7月 魔术协会(The Magic Circle)形成,第一任主席是David Devant。这是一个有威望的魔术师组织,并且拥有严格的抵制魔术揭秘的制度。(它曾经因为建立者向很多著名魔术师揭秘而将其除名过2次。)

        1911年 Nevil Maskelyne和David Devant写的《我们的魔术Our Magic》出版,该书毫无争议被认为是最重要的魔术理论著作之一。

        1918年 1月7日在剧院Houdini第一次表演Morritt的消失的大象。


        1921年 P.T. Selbit第一次表演"Sawing in half",与如今的魔术艺术同义。


        1926年 万圣节前夜下午1:26,Harry Houdini去世。

        大约1940年 Edward M. Massey发明手指切割器,成为很多年轻魔术师的第一个trick。

        1949年 Jean Hugard和Fred Braue写的《通往牌类魔术的捷径Royal Road to Card Magic》第一次出版,并一直是当今牌类魔术玩家的第一本重要读物。

        1952年 JB Bobo写的《现代硬币魔术Modern Coin Magic》第一次出版,该书被一些人认为是硬币魔术的《圣经》,许多魔术玩家都参考这本书。

        1956年 9月16日,大卫科波菲尔出生,原名David Seth Kotkin。

       1960年 3月10日在肯塔基州路易斯维尔市,兰斯伯顿出生,原名William Lance Burton。

 

        1963年 Milt Larsen在美国好莱坞建立魔术城堡,将一座1908年的维多利亚时代的宅第改造为一个卓越魔术中心。很多业内领先的魔术师曾在这里演出。Dai Vernon在他的后半生成为魔术城堡的常驻魔术师。


        1968年 Corinda写的《心灵魔术13步13 Steps to Mentalism》出版,该书是心灵魔术领域最著名的著作。

         1974年 Doug Henning在百老汇上演音乐魔术秀,引领了魔术的一个新“黄金时代”

        1977年 2月20日,在曼彻斯特贝弗利,Marco the Magi介绍Le Grand David以及他壮观的魔术公司首次公演。该演出成为历史上上演时间最长的“常驻魔术秀”。


         1977年 纽约著名的中央公园街头魔术师Jeff Sheridan出版《街头魔术-图解街头魔术师及其魔术艺术历史 STREET MAGIC - An Illustrated History of Wandering Magicians and Their Conjuring Arts》。该书由Dolphin Books出版,是Doubleday Company的版本。从第一个在纽约街头表演魔术的街头魔术师算起,已经超过100年。


         1994年 紧随较历史悠久的文字版新闻和公告板,第一个在线魔术商店开张。有图片的信息网站随之出现,改编了学习和交流魔术的传统方式。
        
        1997年 蒙面魔术师Val Valentino因为在FOX电视特别节目中揭秘魔术而引起众怒。大卫布莱恩David Blaine把街头魔术带到美国。


        1998年 在麦迪逊广场花园的世界幻术开启了Criss Angel的职业生涯,并被其追随者一直追到2003年
        

        2007年 7月7日,在伦敦Covent Garden,以网络论坛为基础交流的英国神秘表演者协会在Treadwells书店召开了一次聚会。有思想的英国和欧洲心灵魔术师、bizarrists、说书人、读者、灵媒以及其他神秘表演者聚会在一起,并随后正式建立了献身艺术的私人协会。

        2700 BCE - The reputed first known performance of a conjuring effect (cups and balls) by the magician Dedi in ancient Egypt. Dedi had done other effects such as decapitating a birds head and reattach the head resurrecting it. (This is disputed as there is nothing in the reference to Dedi, specifically in the Westcar Papyrus, to indicate that he did the cups and balls for anyone. The famous drawing of two men performing the cups and balls, from the tomb and Beni Hasan is believed by most experts to be bakers making bread with bread molds.)(Note: Since there is no indication that Dedi performed the Cups and Balls, and the Beni Hasan heiroglyph is no longer considered to represent the effect, there is no evidence for the existence of the Cups and Balls during this time period.)

        50-300 CE - The Acetabularii performed the Cups and balls in ancient Rome using stones and small vinegar cups (hence the name Acetabularii). Acetabularii are a group of magicians specializing on the cups and balls effect
        400-1000 - The dark ages; little is known about the history of magic, but much of it was associated with the occult and magic as entertainment is not prominent.

         1000-1500 - The Middle Ages where much magic was still associated with the occult and witchcraft. The growing trading nature of society allowed some street or circus performers to make a living out of old classics such as the cups and balls and indeed more modern ideas such as cheating by short changing via sleights with coins and other small objects.

        1584 - Reginald Scot publishes The Discoverie of Witchcraft(sic) a book designed in part to counter the activities of persecutionists, but at the same time revealing many conjuring secrets of the day. Magic and witchcraft were still linked, and many copies of Scot's book were burnt in the early 1600s.


        1720- Isaac Fawlkes, English Magician retires. His performances at fairs leaves him with a fortune of nearly ten thousand pounds. Among his tricks were a card on ceiling with any card called for and his bag of many eggs. His booth is featured in Bartholomew Fair by Hogarth with a sign that says "Dexterity of Hand." He also presented impressionists and contortionists as part of his shows.


      1750 - Pinetti, Chevalier Guiseppe "considered to be the major figure of eighteenth century magic" is born. "Pinetti is said to be the first recorded performer to do the thumb tie effect" and he also performed second sight, exhibited automata and the orange tree illusion. [1]


        1805 - Year of birth of Jean Eugene Robert-Houdin (died 1871). The "father of modern magic," who brought it from the street and circus side shows to an elegant stage or drawing room setting.

         1874 - Year of birth of Harry Houdini aka King of Cards and King of Handcuffs (died 1926). Real name Ehrich Weiss, he achieved fame as an escapologist.


         1876 - The first publication of Modern Magic. Written by Professor Louis Hoffman (1839-1919) (Real name Angelo John Lewis), it was a definitive work on the state of the art of that time.


         1894 - Year of birth of Dai Vernon (died 1992). aka "The Professor" and "The Man That Fooled Houdini", he was born as David Frederick Wingfield Verner in Ottawa. The most influential 20th C magician.


         1902 - May 10, The Society of American Magicians is founded at Martinka's Magic Shop in New York City, New York. It is the oldest magic society in the world.


         1902 - The "Expert At The Card Table" is published by The Charles T. Powner Co. was written by S. W. Erdnase. Considered by serious card workers as one of the most important books written.


         1905 - July - The Magic Circle was formed. Its first President was David Devant. This is a prestigious organisation for magicians and has strict rules against exposure. (It expelled its founder twice for alleged exposure, something it has done to many famous magicians.)


         1911 - Our Magic by Nevil Maskelyne and David Devant arguably one of the most important books of magic theory is published.
         1918 - Houdini first performs Morritt's Vanishing Elephant at the Hippodrome on January 7.


        1921 - P.T. Selbit performs the first ever "Sawing in half", something that is, in present day, synonymous with the art of magic.


        1926 - On All Hallows Eve at 1:26 pm, Harry Houdini dies.

        Circa 1940 - Edward M. Massey invents the finger chopper[2] which becomes many young magicians' first trick.


        1949 - The first publication of Royal Road to Card Magic Written by Jean Hugard and Fred Braue, it's still an important first text for card workers today.

        1952 - The first publication of Modern Coin Magic Written by JB Bobo, considered by some the "bible" of coin magic, many other works reference this one.


        1956 - David Copperfield is born on September 16th, as David Seth Kotkin.

        1960 - Lance Burton is born on March 10th, as William Lance Burton in Louisville, Kentucky.


        1963 - The Magic Castle is formed by Milt Larsen in Hollywood USA by converting a 1908 Victorian mansion to a centre of magical excellence. Many leading magicians have performed there. Dai Vernon was resident magician in the latter part of his life.

        1968 - The book 13 Steps to Mentalism by Corinda was published and is one of the most famous books on mentalism.

 

      1974 - The musical The Magic Show starring Doug Henning opens on Broadway and ushers in a new "Golden Age" of magic.


        1977 - Marco the Magi presents Le Grand David and his own Spectacular Magic Company premieres on February 20th in Beverly, Massachusetts. It becomes the longest running "Resident Magic Show" in history.


        1977 - Jeff Sheridan, NY's celebrated Central Park Street Magician publishes "STREET MAGIC - An Illustrated History of Wandering Magicians and Their Conjuring Arts". Published by Dolphin Books, an imprint of Doubleday Company. The first street magician to perform in NY in over 100 years.

        1994 - The first WWW magic stores appear following the older text type newsgroups and bulletin boards. Pictorial and information sites soon follow, changing the way magic is learned and distributed.

        1997 - The Masked Magician , Val Valentino, provokes much controversy by exposing magic secrets on major Fox TV specials. David Blaine brings "Street Magic" to America.

        1998 - World Of Illusion at Madison Square Garden launched the career of Criss Angel, followed by Criss Angel Mindfreak which ran until 2003.

       2007 - British Society of Mystery Entertainers Borne from communication on niche web forums a meeting was arranged in Treadwells Bookshop, Covent Garden London on 07/07/07. A meeting of likeminded UK and European based mentalists, bizarrists, storytellers, readers, spiritualist performers, and other 'mystery'entertainers met and became subsequently formally established as a private association dedicated to the arts.