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西方魔术轶事

发布日期:2010-11-11

  现藏东柏林的威斯卡纸草记载了几个尼罗河魔术师的故事。一位魔术师砍下塘鹅的头放在宫殿的东边,将鹅的尸体放在西边,一念咒语,鹅的身体就复合在一起了。入迷的法老让他再表演一遍,但即使在古代,魔术师也不会把一个魔术同时表演两遍,这也是美国魔术大师霍华•萨士顿(1896—1936)创立的魔术师应该遵守的原则之一。

  威斯卡纸草写于公元前1700年,如今已经残缺不全,那些毁坏的部分也许还记载了更早期的魔术师。这些魔术师的故事经过一代代人的讲述,难免添油加醋。目前所知,世界上的第一个魔术师可能出现在埃及,他的形象被定格在公元前2500年前的墓室壁画上。埃及考古学家认为这位魔术师正在表演“杯与球”的戏法。古罗马哲学家小塞尼卡在其《四十五使徒传》中说,小球在扣着的杯子里消失和出现的把戏纯粹是骗人的,“这个戏法让我高兴,但是一旦告诉我是怎么回事,我就兴趣顿失”。这也正是魔术师严格保守秘密的原因:一旦没了秘密,也就没了“魔力”。

  基督教早期,教会严禁所有的娱乐活动,但一些魔术师却受到了贵族的保护。9世纪的魔术师西底家(Zedekiah)在国王面前表演魔术,他在冬天让观众看到了鲜花绽放,然后长出果实。到了1066年,法国某些城镇开始禁止手技表演者定居。140年之后,法国国王路易九世流放了境内所有的魔术师和杂耍艺人。到了中世纪末期,欧洲魔术师的苦难开始了,任何未被教堂所认可的技法都被认为是黑魔法。15世纪早期,一个德国女孩被控告是女巫,她的罪行是把一块手帕撕成碎片,随后又让它完好如初。不被当政者所理解的东西总是会受到审判,而魔术正是所有艺术形式中最不能被理解的。

        魔术的确切起源已经无从考证,也许自从有了人类就有了魔术。在部落仪式上,手技者、耍蛇者和简单的戏法总是被赋予神秘的元素,甚至古希腊神殿也利用了魔术的原理:祭师一打开神殿大门,风箱会吹向地面,祭台上便出现了火焰。有些神庙还使用隐藏的暗室,应用风管制造会说话的神像。这些技巧直到现在魔术师还在使用。  
 

  在后期欧洲掀起的理性主义的思潮之下,英国诞生了近代第一位魔术大师埃赛克•福克斯。他在18世纪20年代声名大噪,在伦敦和附近地区的集市上经常能看到他的身影,皇亲国戚和贵族也是他的热心观众。纸牌、鸡蛋、老鼠、硬币和各种印度禽鸟都是他的道具。他经常表演的魔术是从空袋子里取物、把纸牌变成鸟、移动纸牌上的洞。1731年去世之前,他一直坚持每天表演6个小时。

  让•欧仁•罗贝尔(艺名为乌丹)被称为“现代魔术之父”,他在儿时读了一本魔术书之后,便欲罢不能。年轻的魔术师从小学习钟表制作,并且制造了很多自动机械。1845年,乌丹开始在巴黎某剧院表演一系列的心灵感应魔术:眼睛被蒙起来后,他12岁的儿子能说出观众提供的各种物品。1848年,乌丹为维多利亚女王表演,而后游历整个大不列颠,并在巴黎建造了罗贝尔•乌丹剧场,此后60年这里都是法国魔术的中心。乌丹于1873年去世,他在有生之年著述甚丰,留下了多姿多彩的自传和魔术书。最重要的是他令魔术这一行业合法化,洗刷了魔术师此前所承受的羞辱和轻贱。

  魔术史的下一个时期开始挑战很多看起来真实的东西。1865年,25岁的约翰•奈维尔•马斯基林和搭档开始了魔术表演秀:他被锁在箱子里,然后箱子被放进橱柜里,再打开橱柜,观众发现他坐在依旧锁着的箱子上。两人一路表演,名声从外省一直传到伦敦。1873年,他们的“埃及人”剧院在伦敦正式开张营业,此后他们的名字成为英国魔术的同义词长达31年之久。他们把“木箱逃生”改编成当时流行的魔术短剧,情节浪漫,富有戏剧性,也囊括了魔术的消失、再现和转移等多种要素。

  19世纪末是魔术表演的黄金时期,魔术师的地位和受欢迎程度都达到了历史的巅峰。大剧院是魔术师表演的主要场所,各地的魔术表演都是观众济济。魔术师表演时穿着正式的燕尾服,就像当时上戏院的观众们一样,这也是魔术师穿燕尾服表演的开始。

 20世纪30年代,电影工业蓬勃发展,魔术表演市场则快速衰退,因为电影成为了最大的魔法。很多魔术师不得不另寻出路,亨利•鲍顿便是其中之一。

  鲍顿1885年出生在芝加哥,十几岁的时候与哥哥一起开始了魔术生涯,1918年受到一种香烟牌子的启发,改名为黑石。他以视觉魔术著称,“嗡嗡作响的电锯”——观众可以看到分成两半的女人,“漂浮的灯泡”——发亮的灯泡飘来飘去,“跳舞的手帕”——一块手帕飞来飞去与魔术师跳舞。

  电影抢走了魔术杂耍的生意,很多魔术剧场被迫关门,适应能力超强的黑石开始了各地巡演,预订了很多表演场所。二战期间,他开始为军队表演。1965年他去世后,他的儿子继承了家族传统继续表演魔术。

  和黑石家族一样,现代魔术师面对挑战。

  1918年3月23日晚上,程连苏正在表演他的看家本领“手枪魔术”。两支手枪装上了子弹,然后他走到舞台的另一边,两个助手瞄准了他,观众们都屏住呼吸,然后两声枪响。在以前的表演中,程连苏会走上前台向观众展示他接住的子弹,但这一次却发生了严重失误。火药真的在枪膛里引爆,射中了程连苏的胸部。观众们看到程连苏倒在舞台之上,鲜血染红了长袍。其被送到医院后,隔天宣告不治死亡。

  程连苏1861年生于纽约,本名威廉•罗宾森,因为深深迷上了中国魔术和中国的异国风情,在巡回表演中常常扮演成中国人程连苏。他和妻子在伦敦表演了17年,经常表演一些中国的传统古戏法,比如“大碗飞水”——从长袍里面变出盛满水的大碗,把鱼竿扔向观众席里钓出鱼,手枪魔术也是他的独创。

  程连苏死后,验尸报告注明这是个“意外死亡”。不过1955年美国一位魔术师宣称当时程连苏正背负债务,所以才上演了一出精心计划的自杀表演。还有人认为是他的经纪人在枪上动了手脚,所以才导致魔术师的死亡。不管真相如何,都说明了危险一直伴随着魔术表演。

         现代魔术师面对挑战,不断创新,古老的魔术不会从历史的舞台上消失。

         Weiss now collected in East Berlin a few jams recorded in the Nile grass magician's story. Magician cut off the head of a pelican on the east side of the palace, on the west side of the body of the goose, one incantations, goose body composite together. Pharaoh fascinated him show me, but even in ancient times, nor will a magician performing magic at the same time twice, which is the American magician Howard • Sashi Dayton (1896-1936) founded the magician should follow One of the principles.

         Weiss jam grass was written in 1700 BC, and now mutilated, destroyed part of those recorded earlier may also be a magician. The magician's story through the generations to talk, inevitably distorted. Current knowledge, the first magician in the world may be in Egypt, his image was fixed in the year 2500 BC, the tomb murals. Egyptian archaeologists believe that the magician is performing "cup and ball" trick. Small Roman philosopher Seneca, in its "forty-five Acts passed," said the ball disappeared in the clasp of the cup and the emergence of the trick is simply a lie, "This trick makes me happy, but once told me how the matter, I will lose interest. " This is exactly the reason magician closely guarded secret: Once not a secret, but also no the "magic."

         Early Christian church prohibited all recreational activities, but some magicians are protected by the nobility. 9th century magician Zedekiah (Zedekiah) perform magic before the king, he let the audience see in the winter blooming flowers, and grow fruit. To 1066, France banned in some cities and towns live performers hand skills. 140 years later, King Louis IX of France exiled magician and juggling all the territory of artists. To the late Middle Ages, European magician suffering began, the church is not recognized by any of the techniques are considered to be black magic. The early 15th century, a German girl was charged with a witch, her crime was torn to pieces into a handkerchief and subsequently it intact. Not be understood by those in power things will always be brought to trial, and the magic is most all forms of art can not be understood.

        Has been difficult to trace the exact origin of magic, perhaps with the introduction of human beings have a magic. In the tribal ceremony, hand skills have snake and a simple trick is always given the mysterious elements, and even ancient Greek temple is also the principle of using the Magic: priest opened the temple door, the wind will blow the ground box, altar giving rise to a flame. Some temples also use a hidden chamber, duct manufacturing applications talking statues. Until now magician still using these techniques.
 

         In the latter part of the European rationalist thought set off under the first modern British born magician Ai Saike • Fox. In the 18th century, 20 years his fame in London and surrounding areas can often see him on a fair figure, royal and noble was his enthusiastic audience. Cards, eggs, mice, coins and a variety of Indian birds are his props. His magic show is often an empty bag from the extract, the cards become a bird, moving cards on the hole. Before his death in 1731, he has been performing every day for 6 hours.

         Let • Eugene • Robert (better known as Wudan) is known as the "father of modern magic," he read in childhood, after a magic book, then stop. The young magician to learn watch making since childhood, and created a lot of automatic machinery. In 1845, a theater in Paris Wudan began performing a series of telepathic magic: the eyes are kept up, his 12-year-old son to tell viewers a variety of items. In 1848, Queen Victoria Wudan show, and then traveled throughout Great Britain, and built in Paris, Robert • Wudan Theatre, after 60 years of magic here is the center of France. Wudan died in 1873, his writing is very rich in their lifetime, leaving a colorful autobiography and magic books. The most important thing is that the magic he legitimized the industry, washing the magician had endured humiliation and belittle.

         History of Magic began to challenge many of the next period looks the real thing. 1865, 25-year-old John • Neville • Maskelyne and his partner began performing magic show: He was locked in a box, and then the box was put in the cupboard, and then open the cabinet, found him sitting in the audience is still locked the boxes. Two way performance, fame has spread to London from other provinces. 1873, the "Egyptian" theater officially opened for business in London, after which their names become synonymous with the British over the magic 31 years. They "wooden escape" was adapted into a popular magic skits, plot romantic, dramatic, but also include the magic disappeared, reproduction and transfer and other factors.

         The late 19th century was the golden age of magic show, Magic's status and popularity have reached a historical peak. Magic Theatre is the main venue for performances, magic shows around the large pool of all the audience. Magician wearing a formal tuxedo show, as was the theater as the audience, this is the beginning of a magician performing wearing a tuxedo.

         30 years of the 20th century, the film industry to flourish, magic shows, the market is rapidly declining, because the film became the biggest magic. Many magicians have to find another way out, Henry • Bowden is one of them.

         Bowden was born in Chicago in 1885, a teenager with his brother when the magic began his career in 1918, inspired by a cigarette brand, changed its name to Blackstone. Known for his visual magic, "buzzing chainsaw" - viewers can see a woman in half, "floating light bulb" - bright light bulbs floated, "dancing handkerchief" - flying a handkerchief dance with the magician.

         Take away the magic juggling movie business, a lot of magic theater was forced to close, superior ability to adapt to Blackstone began touring, booking a lot of venues. During World War II, he began performing for the troops. After his death in 1965, his son inherited the family tradition continues to perform magic.

         And the Blackstone family, the modern magician to the challenge.


         March 23, 1918 evening, Chung Ling Soo was performing his special skill "pistol magic." Two pistols fitted with a bullet, and then he went to the other side of the stage, two assistants, pointing at him, the audience are holding their breath, and then two shots. In previous performances, Chung Ling Soo will step forward to show the audience he took the bullets, but this time it was a serious mistake. Really in the barrel of a gun powder exploded in a way even the Soviet Union shot in the chest. The audience see the way down on the stage with the Soviet Union, the blood stained robes. Its being sent to the hospital, pronounced dead the next day dead.

         Chung Ling Soo was born in New York in 1861, the Ming Weilian • Robinson, as fascinated by the magic of China and China's exotic, often in the touring play into the Chinese way with the Soviet Union. He and his wife performed in London for 17 years, often performing some of the traditional ancient Chinese magic, such as "flying bowl of water" - from the robe, and become a bowl filled with water, threw in the audience to catch a fishing rod fish, a pistol was his original magic.

         After the death of Chung Ling Soo, the autopsy report indicated this is a "accidental death." But in 1955 claim that the United States was a magician Chung Ling Soo is carrying debt, why they staged a carefully planned suicide show. And still others on the gun to his agent, moving the hands and feet, so that led to the death of a magician. Truth, no matter how dangerous all that has been associated with magic shows.

         Magic face the challenges of modern, innovative, the old magic will not disappear from the stage of history.

 

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